Mud properties and additives are one of the critical topics in drilling fluids therefore people need to learn the basic to fully understand about it. We would like to share the great VDO demonstrating the basic of mud properties and additives. In this VDO, you will learn basic and there are a lot of images which will accelerate your learning curve. Additionally, we also have full VDO transcript to help anybody who cannot catch the English in the VDO very well. Enjoy learning : )
Full VDO Transcripts
In water or oil based drilling mud, crew members usually add a clay called Bentonite or similar mineral.Bentonite swells in water. Therefore it thickens the mud, gives it viscosity to help clean the cuttings from the hole and provide other desirable properties. Barite is a heavy mineral. The crew adds barite to the mud to make it heavy or dense. Barite is over four times heavier than water. Dense mud exerts more pressure than light mud. Weighted mud, controls formation pressure, this is called Primary Well Control. The control of many mud properties depends on its PH.
This VDO training contains the over all knowledge of drilling fluid used in oilfield. Water based mud, oil based mud and air are utilized as drilling fluid in oil and gas exploration. Please see the VDO below.
Drilling fluid or drilling mud as many people call it, is a vital element of the Rotary drilling process. The term “drilling fluid” includes gas, air, water and mud. “Mud” refers to the liquid that contains solids in water or oil. The mud is made up with clay and other additives that give it desired properties.
Often, water is the base of drilling mud. Water makes up the liquid part, or phase of water-based mud. Crewmembers put clay and other additives into the water to make a mud with the properties needed to do its job well. For example, clays give it thickness or viscosity. The water in the mode may be freshwater, seawater or concentrated brine (saltwater). The one that is used depends on the availability and whether it provides the needed qualities to drill the hole efficiently. At times, don’t hold drilling conditions require the crew to add oil to the mud. Or in some cases, crewmembers use oil instead of water for the base of the mud. This is called oil-based mud.
Drilling waste minimization is a method to reduce any waste generated from drilling operation. The ideal goal of it is to generate zero residue requiring final disposals. People have developed technologies for two main reasons which are project cost reduction and environmental protection.
Typically, the drilling waste minimization starts with reducing amount of drilling waste, recycling and recovering waste streams which will be covered in next topics in this blog.
Formation fractures are initiated by excessive pressure in the annulus which is more than fracture gradient. This situation is happened when increasing mud weight, tripping, surging, drilling very fast or circulating the kick in the annulus. Personnel need to be very careful about this issue.
Drilling practices to prevent creating fracture initiation are as follows:
• Mud weight should be high enough to control formation and control wellbore stability.
Lost circulation by induced losses is created by people. The situation is happened when the equivalent circulating density (ECD) is more than formation fracture gradient; therefore, the formation is broken and the lost circulation is occurred.
The following situations increase the equivalent circulating density (ECD).
• Increase pump rate
• Increase mud weight
• Trip in or reciprocate the drill string to fast (increase surge pressure)
• Drill too fast
• Increase solid content in drilling mud (mud rheology increase)
• Increase CO2 content in oil based mud
The induced losses occur in the weakest formation in the well. It means that it can be happened at in anywhere in the well. However, the natural losses first happen at the bit. When the induced loss is happened, it is quite difficult to identify loss zones and placement the LCM across formations.